Monday, May 25, 2015

Find: Get ready to wait in line for more IPv4 addresses

Get ready to wait in line for more IPv4 addresses
// Ars Technica

For some time now, we've been writing about how IPv4 addresses are running out. Very soon, ARIN, the American Registry for Internet Numbers, which distributes IP addresses in North America, will have to say "no" to a member requesting IPv4 addresses, even though they qualify for getting them.

In Asia, Europe, and Latin America/the Caribbean, the local Regional Internet Registries handed out IPv4 addresses in accordance with the governing policies until they reached a "final /8" or "final /10" limit of 16,777,216 or 4,194,304 in 2011, 2012, and 2014, respectively. At that point, each member (mostly Internet Service Providers) got to request one last block of 1,024 addresses.

ARIN has adopted a slightly different approach: rather than reserve a final block of addresses that are distributed under different rules, ARIN attacked the depletion of the IPv4 address space in four phases, where each phase increased the scrutiny given to requests. We're currently in phase four, and so far, ARIN has been able to meet all qualifying requests. But at this time, the largest block of IPv4 addresses in ARIN's vaults is a /11, or 2(32-11) = 2.09 million addresses. Although requests for such large blocks don't come in every day, the largest ISPs in North America do request blocks of this size at somewhat regular intervals. Soon, that last /11 will be gone. Then there's a /12 (1.04 million addresses), a /17 (131 thousand addresses), and a /20 (4,096 addresses). After that, it's basically scraps, with only /21s (2,048 addresses) and smaller left.

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Wednesday, May 20, 2015

Find: Web Served: How to make your site all-HTTPS, all the time, for everyone

Web Served: How to make your site all-HTTPS, all the time, for everyone
// Ars Technica

Welcome to a supplemental edition of our "Web Served" series, a DIY guide on tackling the challenges of setting up and running a Web server for fun. It’s been a while since we last published an entry—so long in fact, that at some point very soon, I’ll be going back through the series and bringing everything up to date with current versions and commands. But after spending the last weekend tinkering with shifting my personal site over to all-HTTPS, it was just too much fun not to share.

Note that if you’re not the kind of person who thinks screwing around with the command line is fun, this probably isn’t a guide you’re going to be interested in.

Encrypt all the things

The unencrypted Web is on the way out, and that’s a good thing. We’re still making the switch here at Ars—subscriptors can use HTTPS today, but we’re still working out the mixed content kinks for everyone else (the main holdup is handling the ad networks. Since subscriptors don’t see ads, there’s no holdup there!). But if you’ve followed along with the previous Web Served pieces you’ve probably got a shiny Nginx instance happily serving up pages and an SSL/TLS certificate so that privacy-minded visitors have the option of using HTTPS on your site.

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Find: North Carolina sues FCC for right to block municipal broadband

North Carolina sues FCC for right to block municipal broadband
// Ars Technica

North Carolina has sued the Federal Communications Commission so it can continue enforcing a state law that prevents municipal broadband networks from expanding.

Three months ago, the FCC preempted such laws in both North Carolina and Tennessee. Tennessee filed a lawsuit to save its municipal broadband restrictions in March, and North Carolina has now done the same in a petition filed last week to the US Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit.

"Despite recognition that the State of North Carolina creates and retains control over municipal governments, the FCC unlawfully inserted itself between the State and the State’s political subdivisions," North Carolina Attorney General Roy Cooper wrote to the court. Cooper claimed the FCC's action violates the US Constitution; exceeds the commission's authority; "is arbitrary, capricious, and an abuse of discretion within the meaning of the Administrative Procedure Act; and is otherwise contrary to law."

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